Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-based imaging seeks to fill some critical gaps in prostate cancer staging and response assessment, and may select patients for treatment with radiolabeled PSMA conjugates.

In biochemical recurrence, at prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels as low as 0.2 ng/dL, 68Ga-PSMA imaging has demonstrated a 42% detection rate of occult metastatic disease, and detection has been greater than 95% when PSA levels are higher than 2 ng/dL. This may facilitate novel approaches, including salvage lymphadenectomy or metastasis-directed radiation therapy, in patients with oligometastatic disease. PSMA-based imaging has shown promise in evaluating treatment response in hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant disease; however, additional longitudinal assessment is needed given the heterogeneity in uptake changes after the initiation of androgen-deprivation therapy. Changes in uptake must be taken in context of RECIST measurements and other response parameters, given the potential for growth of PSMA-negative lesions and persistent uptake in treated bone lesions of uncertain significance. For selecting patients to receive PSMA-targeted radioconjugate therapy, standardized uptake value thresholds remain to be established. Nevertheless, preliminary data from 177Lu-PSMA theranostic trials have yielded PSA responses in up to 57% of patients, as well as pain relief and improved quality of life. Thrombocytopenia was the most common grade 3 or greater toxicity; however, grade 1 xerostomia occurred frequently and was cited as the most common reason for treatment discontinuation.

American Society of Clinical Oncology educational book. American Society of Clinical Oncology. Annual Meeting. 2019 May 17 [Epub]

Tanya B Dorff, Stefano Fanti, Andrea Farolfi, Robert E Reiter, Taylor Y Sadun, Oliver Sartor

1 Department of Medical Oncology and Developmental Therapeutics, City of Hope, Duarte, CA., 2 Nuclear Medicine, S.Orsola University Hospital, Bologna, Italy., 3 Institute of Urologic Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA., 4 Department of Urology, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA., 5 Department of Medical Oncology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.