Introduction: Advanced renal cell cancers (aRCC) has historically been responsive to immune system manipulation. A better understanding of the anti-tumor immune response has fueled the emergence of immunotherapy-based regimens, including combinations with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Areas covered: In this review, we will describe the historic use of immunotherapies and their integration with newer agents, specifically in clear cell aRCC. Expert opinion: Novel immunotherapeutic agents, as well as combinations with VEGF/TKI therapy, will become the standard of care initial therapy in the management of aRCC. Further studies in the sequencing of drug administration, managing treatment-related adverse events (TRAE), and exploring innovative approaches are warranted.

Expert opinion on biological therapy. 2019 Jun 12 [Epub ahead of print]

Iris Y Sheng, Brian I Rini

a Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology , Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute , Cleveland , OH , USA.