The treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has evolved tremendously over the past decades. Localized disease is often curative with surgical resection of the malignancy. However, in cases where the primary tumor has metastasized, immunotherapy is becoming a more prevalent means to combat metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Cytokine and checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy have been demonstrated to stimulate the immune response through a number of different mechanisms. These drugs have been used as a monotherapy, combination therapy, or as successive treatments to systemic therapies. This review summarizes the success of previous and current therapeutic targets, while also leading to the direction of future therapies. This review might be helpful in improving the management of mRCC.
Anticancer research. 2019 Jun [Epub]
Alexander J Chang, Lei Zhao, Ziwen Zhu, Kyle Boulanger, Huaping Xiao, Mark R Wakefield, Qian Bai, Yujiang Fang
Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Pathology, Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA, U.S.A., The Department of Respiratory Medicine, The 2nd People’s Hospital of Hefei and Hefei Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, Hefei, P.R. China., Department of Surgery, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, U.S.A., Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Pathology, Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA, U.S.A. .