Localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an associated risk of recurrence after nephrectomy. Several clinical risk models attempt to predict oncologic outcomes based on clinical and pathologic features. In addition, novel gene signatures have been developed to refine risk prediction based on tumor biology. Systemic therapies targeting angiogenic pathways that are effective in metastatic RCC failed to show an improvement in overall survival in the adjuvant setting. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown significant antitumor activity with prolonged and durable responses in metastatic RCC, which led to an interest in evaluating these agents in the adjuvant setting. In this review, clinical risk-predictive models, novel gene signatures, major clinical trials completed in the adjuvant setting, ongoing immune checkpoint inhibitor trials, and the perspective of adjuvant treatment in RCC are discussed.

Cancer. 2019 Jun 21 [Epub ahead of print]

Anita Gul, Brian I Rini

Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio.