Prostate cancer (PC) is a multifocal disease. DNA methylation alterations are not restricted to the immediate peritumor environment, but spatially widespread in the adjacent and distant histologically normal prostate tissues. In the current study, we utilized high-throughput methylation arrays to identify epigenetic changes in the urine from men with and without cancer.

DNA urine samples were enriched for methylated fragments using MBD methyl-binding antibodies and applied to high density CytoScanHD arrays. Significant loci were validated using quantitative pyrosequencing and binary logistic regression modeling applied to urine sample analyses in a training (n = 83) and validation approach (n = 84). Methylation alterations in prostate tissues using pyrosequencing at the PLA2G16 locus were examined in 38 histologically normal specimens from men with (TA, n = 26) and without (NTA, n = 12) cancer and correlated to gene expression.

Methylation microarrays identified 3,986 loci showing significantly altered methylation in the urine samples from patients with PC compared to those without (TA vs NTA; p<0.01). These loci were then compared against subjects with their prostates removed to exclude non-prostate cell markers yielding 196 significant regions. Multiple CpGs adjacent to PLA2G16 CpG island showed increased methylation in TA compared to NTA (p<0.01) in a large validation study of urine samples. The predictive accuracy of PLA2G16 methylation at CG2 showed the highest predictive value at 0.8 (odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.62; p<0.001). Using a probability cutoff of 0.065, the sensitivity and specificity of the multivariate model was 92% and 35%. When histologically normal prostate tissues/biopsies from patients with PC (TA) were compared to subjects without cancer, significant hypermethylation of PLA2G16 was noted (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.71; p = 0.01).

PLA2G16 methylation defines an extensive field defect in histologically normal prostate tissue associated with PC. PLA2G16 methylation in urine and prostate tissues can detect the presence of PC.

PloS one. 2019 Jun 24*** epublish ***

William E Jarrard, Adam Schultz, Tyler Etheridge, Shivashankar Damodaran, Glenn O Allen, David Jarrard, Bing Yang

Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America., Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, United States of America.