Today, there are few indications for the use of bowel in pediatric urology. This is in large extent due to the successful conservative therapy in patients with neurogenic bladder and the improved success of primary reconstruction in patients with the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex. Only after the failure of the maximum of conservative therapy or after failure of primary reconstruction, bladder augmentation, or urinary diversion should be considered. Malignant tumors of the lower urinary tract (e.g., rhabdomyosarcomas of the bladder/prostate) are other rare indications for urinary diversion. Replacement or reconstruction of the ureter with a bowel segment is also a quite rarely performed procedure. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of the different options for the use of bowel segments for bladder augmentation, bladder substitution, urinary diversion, or ureter replacement during childhood and adolescence are discussed.

Frontiers in pediatrics. 2019 Jun 12*** epublish ***

Raimund Stein, Katrin Zahn, Nina Huck

Department of Pediatric, Adolescent and Reconstructive Urology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.