In overactive bladder (OAB), after an initial outbreak of research, it is more consensual that biomarkers may be better used to phenotype patients. Herein, we revisit this topic, including some of the most promising biomarkers.
To provide a comprehensive analysis of the actual role of biomarkers in OAB.
A PubMed-based literature search was conducted, including the most relevant articles published in the last 15 yr, on nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), genomics, and microbiota as OAB biomarkers. Articles with no full text available or not written in English were excluded. Additional reviews were included.
Urinary NGF, BDNF, and ATP are increased in many OAB patients. These biomarkers can help identify OAB phenotypes and select the ideal candidates for new therapies directed to neurotrophic and purinergic pathways. Circulating urinary miRNA may be useful for establishing the ideal moment for bladder outlet obstruction relief and will eventually lead to the development of therapeutic agents that inhibit or reverse fibrotic pathways in the bladder. Urinary microbiota seems to be related to OAB symptoms, in particular urgency urinary incontinence, and may have strong implications in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of OAB.
In the future, physicians may consider the use of biomarkers to identify distinct OAB phenotypes, with distinct causal mechanisms, selecting patients for specific target therapies with expected better outcomes.
Overactive bladder biomarkers can be useful for phenotype patients and for selecting more effective target therapies.
European urology focus. 2019 Jun 20 [Epub ahead of print]
Tiago Antunes-Lopes, Francisco Cruz
Department of Urology, Hospital de S. João, Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; I3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Translational Neuro-Urology Group, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, Hospital de S. João, Porto, Portugal; Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; I3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Translational Neuro-Urology Group, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.