Salvage lymph node dissection (SLND) is still a questionable treatment approach for patients with nodal recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. We assessed the oncological benefit after SLND in hormone-naïve patients as well as the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning.

The study relied on retrospective collected data of 43 hormone-naïve men who received transperitoneal SLND between February 2011 and March 2017 at our institution. The oncological outcome for each patient was observed by serum prostate-specific antigen testing. Postoperative complications within 30 and 90 days were assessed according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. The accuracy of PSMA PET/CT was characterized by calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values.

Overall 8 patients (18.6%) had a complete biochemical response 40 days after SLND. The median time from SLND to biochemical recurrence was 2 months. Adjuvant treatment encompassing radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy, or a combination of both, was administrated in 62.8%. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, no high-grade complications were observed. Sensitivity and specificity for PSMA PET/CT were respectively 32% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.21-51.59) and 91.74% (95% CI: 85.45-95.45). Calculated positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of PSMA PET/CT were 44.44% (95% CI: 25.98-64.58) and 86.72% (95% CI: 83.23-89.57).

For most hormone-naïve men with a nodal recurrence of prostate cancer transperitoneal SLND is neither an appropriate treatment to cure nor an option to delay the need for salvage hormone manipulation. PSMA PET/CT scans in hormone-naïve patients are currently too imprecise to diagnose metastatic sites.

Urologic oncology. 2019 Jul 18 [Epub ahead of print]

Julian Hanske, Jessica Ostholt, Florian Roghmann, Guido Müller, Katharina Braun, Benedikt Gomez, Nicolas von Landenberg, Christian von Bodman, Rein-Jüri Palisaar, Dieter Liermann, Joachim Noldus, Marko Brock

Department of Urology, Marien Hospital Herne, Ruhr-University Bochum, Herne, Germany. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, Marien Hospital Herne, Ruhr-University Bochum, Herne, Germany., Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Marien Hospital Herne, Ruhr-University Bochum, Herne, Germany.