Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the mainstay of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer since the first report of its hormonal dependence in the 1940s. Since 2015, the addition of docetaxel and the addition of abiraterone to ADT have confered significant overall survival benefit in men with metastatic castration-naïve prostate cancer (mCNPC). The shift of these treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer from the castration-resistant setting to the castration-naïve setting has led to new challenges in the management of this disease. It remains to be determined which patients may benefit most from either early concomitant docetaxel or from abiraterone with ADT, since biomarkers for early therapy response and risk stratification are currently lacking. Therefore, the ability to personalize medicine is hampered. Furthermore, the earlier detection of metastatic prostate cancer by using new imaging modalities makes the application of clinical trial results in daily practice increasingly challenging. Recently, both local radiotherapy to the primary tumor combined with ADT and abiraterone combined with ADT showed a survival benefit in low-volume disease patients. The latest data also demonstrated a survival benefit with the addition of apalutamide or enzalutamide to ADT. The extent of metastatic disease may become one of the most important factors to determine treatment choice. In this review article, we summarize trial data to provide guidance for treatment selection in metastatic castration-naïve prostate cancer.

Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology. 2019 Jul 24 [Epub ahead of print]

B P S Belderbos, R de Wit, M P J Lolkema, R H J Mathijssen, R J van Soest

Dept. of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.