A risk factor model for urinary tract infections in patients with adult neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction performing clean intermittent catheterisation was developed; it consists of four domains, namely, (1) general (systemic) conditions in the patient, (2) individual urinary tract conditions in the patient, (3) routine aspects related to the patient, and (4) factors related to intermittent catheters per se. The conceptual model primarily concerns patients with spinal cord injury, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, or cauda equina where intermittent catheterisation is a normal part of the bladder management. On basis of several literature searches and author consensus in case of lacking evidence, the model intends to provide an overview of the risk factors involved in urinary tract infections, with specific emphasis to describe those that in daily practice can be handled and modified by the clinician and so come to the benefit of the individual catheter user in terms of fewer urinary tract infections.

Advances in urology. 2019 Apr 02*** epublish ***

Michael Kennelly, Nikesh Thiruchelvam, Márcio Augusto Averbeck, Charalampos Konstatinidis, Emmanuel Chartier-Kastler, Pernille Trøjgaard, Rikke Vaabengaard, Andrei Krassioukov, Birte Petersen Jakobsen

Department of Urology, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA., Department of Urology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK., Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil., Urology & Neuro-urology Unit, National Rehabilitation Center, Athens, Greece., Urology Clinic, Hôpital Raymond Poincaré, Paris, France., Coloplast A/S, Humlebaek, Denmark., Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada., Independent Medical Consultant, MD, MedDevHealth, Copenhagen, Denmark.