The aim of this study was to determine the prophylactic effect of intravesical chemotherapy. Furthermore, it aimed to compare the efficacy of regimens on the prevention of bladder recurrence, after nephroureterectomy, for upper tract urothelial carcinoma by systematic review and network meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to search for studies published before 22 December 2016 using PubMed, Embase, and Scopus. All studies comparing nephroureterectomy alone with prophylactic intravesical chemotherapy after nephroureterectomy were included. The primary outcome was intravesical recurrence-free survival rate. In addition, we conducted indirect comparisons among regimens using network meta-analysis, as well as three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on multicenter setting, and one large retrospective study with a total of 532 patients were analyzed. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of bladder recurrence was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.38-0.76) in intravesical instillation patients. On network meta-analysis, pirarubicin was ranked the most effective regimen, while maintenance therapy of mitomycin C (MMC) with Ara-C and induction therapy of MMC were ranked as the second and third most effective regimens, respectively. Our study demonstrates that intravesical chemotherapy can prevent bladder recurrence in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma after nephroureterectomy. It also suggests that a single instillation of pirarubicin is the most efficacious intravesical regimen.

Journal of clinical medicine. 2019 Jul 19*** epublish ***

Sang Hyun Yoo, Chang Wook Jeong, Cheol Kwak, Hyeon Hoe Kim, Min Soo Choo, Ja Hyeon Ku

Department of Urology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea,., Department of Urology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong 18450, Korea. ., Department of Urology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea,. .