The present study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of medical therapy with potassium citrate in preventing calculosis complicating Medullary Sponge Kidney (MSK) without renal acidification defects.

In a open, uncontrolled, retrospective analysis, 49 MSK patients with nephrolithiasis without renal tubular acidosis, underwent a complete metabolic evaluation and received potassium citrate therapy 4-6 g/day. The course of stone disease before and after citrate therapy was determined in each patient from a combination of clinical history, past records, radiographs and kidney ultrasound. The rate of new stone formation/pt/yr, of endourological and extracorporeal procedures, of urinary tract infection (UTI) and number of hospitalization before and after medical treatment were calculated.

Metabolic anomalies (hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, hyperuricuria and hyperoxaluria) were present in 83% of the patients. Follow-up before and after alkali citrate therapy was comparable (4.7+/-1.4 and 4.9+/-1.7 years respectively). Medical treatment significantly reduced rates of stone formation from 2.0+/-1.0 to 0.2+/-0.5 pt/yr, ureteroscopy (URS) from 0.9+/0.8 to 0.4+/-0.5 pt/yr, extratracoporeal lithotripsy (ESWL) from 1.1+/-0.8 to 0.4+/-0.6 pt/yr, urinary tract infections (UTIs) from 0.8+/-1.2 to 0.3+/-0.5 pt/yr and hospitalization from 1.1+/-0.6 to 0.2+/-0.3 pt/yr, p < 0.001. This effect was observed also in MSK patients without metabolic anomalies. In 35 patients the asymptomatic disappearance of calcium stones was also observed.

Our study documents the effectiveness of potassium citrate therapy in preventing neprolithiasis in MSK patients also in the absence of distal tubular acidosis. It suggests that in MSK patients alkali citrate may promote calcium stone dissolution by oral administration.

Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica. 2019 Jul 02*** epublish ***

Elisa Cicerello, Matteo Ciaccia, Giandavide Cova, Mario Mangano

Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, Ospedale Ca’ Foncello, Treviso. .