To describe safety, efficacy, and added oncologic margin of saline displacement of the rectal wall during MRI-guided cryoablation of primary and recurrent prostate cancer.

A retrospective review was conducted for patients who underwent MRI-guided cryoablation with saline displacement of the rectal wall for treatment of primary and recurrent prostate cancer over a 2-year period. Saline displacement was used when the distance from the edge of the ablation area to the rectal wall was insufficient to provide at least a 5-mm treatment margin. Pre- and post-ablation rectal wall displacement distances as well as ablative zone margins were assessed with MRI. Saline displacement distance was measured from the rectal wall to the edge of the lesion for focal lesion ablation and from the edge of the prostate for hemi-gland ablation. Immediate and intermediate-term complications were assessed.

Saline displacement was used in 25 patients undergoing MRI-guided cryoablation. Twenty-one patients underwent salvage cryoablation, while four patients had it as primary treatment for prostate cancer. Median pre- and post- saline displacement rectal wall displacement distances were 6.0 and 11.2 mm, respectively (P < 0.0001). Median-added oncologic margin achieved by saline displacement was 4.6 mm (range 0.6-26.5). Median follow-up was 14 months (range 5-29). There were no intra-procedural complications and 3 patients experienced minor (Clavien-Dindo grade I) complications. One rectal complication occurred in a patient undergoing salvage cryotherapy with a history of extensive pelvic surgery and radiation.

Saline infusion at the time of MRI- guided cryoablation for prostate cancer resulted in increased distances between the target lesion and rectum. This is a useful technique in providing an added oncologic margin when treating lesions close to the rectal wall.

Abdominal radiology (New York). 2019 Jul 29 [Epub ahead of print]

Derek J Lomas, David A Woodrum, Robert H McLaren, Krzysztof R Gorny, Joel P Felmlee, Christopher Favazza, Aiming Lu, Lance A Mynderse

Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. ., Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA., Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.