The purpose of this article is to review and summarize recent data on gender differences in oncologic and functional outcomes in women undergoing radical cystectomy with urinary diversion as contemporary studies have highlighted a potential disparity in outcomes between men and women.
Gender (being a woman) as a social determinant of health negatively affects oncologic outcome in women with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy secondary to delays in diagnosis, treatment, and misdiagnosis. Sex (being female) negatively affects oncologic outcome in women with bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy through tumor and host biology. Female patients present with advance stage and basal molecular subtype tumors enriched with squamous and sarcomatoid histology. Preliminary studies implicate the hormonal axis in differential bladder cancer development and progression between women and men. After radical cystectomy, functional outcomes (urinary, sexual, and overall quality of life) are poorly assessed in women yet important for both physicians and patients for clinical decision-making and counseling.
Future research (clinical trials, assessment of functional outcomes using gender-specific measures) must include women with bladder cancer and raise awareness regarding the gaps in knowledge and care for these patients.
Current opinion in urology. 2019 Sep [Epub]
Michael Sadighian, Sima Porten
School of Medicine., Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.