Inflammation is inherent in prostatic diseases and it is now accepted that it may facilitate cellular proliferation in both benign and malignant conditions. The strong relationship between prostatic inflammation and pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is supported by epidemiologic, histopathologic and molecular evidence. Contrariwise, the role of inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis is still controversial, although current data indicate that the inflammatory microenvironment can regulate prostate cancer (PCa) growth and progression. Knowledge of the complex molecular landscape associated with chronic inflammation in the context of PCa may lead to the introduction and optimization of novel targeted therapies. In this perspective, evaluation of the inflammatory component in prostate specimens could be included in routine pathology reports.

International journal of molecular sciences. 2019 Aug 06*** epublish ***

Tommaso Cai, Raffaella Santi, Irene Tamanini, Ilaria Camilla Galli, Gianpaolo Perletti, Truls E Bjerklund Johansen, Gabriella Nesi

Department of Urology, Santa Chiara Regional Hospital, 38122 Trento, Italy., Careggi University Hospital, 50134 Florence, Italy., Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy., Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, 21100 Busto Arsizio, Italy., Department of Urology, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway., Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy. .