This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of DNA methylation of metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) on prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Forty-nine paired PCa tissue samples and normal tissue samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed. Methylome analysis, CpG island arrays and Hierarchical clustering were used to analyze methylation profiles of PCa tissues. MTSS1 methylation level was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Relative messenger RNA and the expression level of MTSS1 protein were identified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis. The migration, invasion, proliferation, and cell cycle were detected separately by wound-healing assay, transwell chamber assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry. The roles of MTSS1 in PCa progression were demonstrated in vivo by tumor formation assays in nude mice. MTSS1 expression was decreased in PCa tissues in comparison with paired adjacent normal prostate tissues. Compared to the methylation of MTSS1 in normal prostate tissues based on the MethHC website, the MTSS1 in PCa tissues was hypermethylated. The expression of MTSS1 detected by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis was found to be downregulated in PCa cells and tissues. The reduced expression of MTSS1 by small interfering RNA-MTSS1 was recovered by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment. Besides, MTSS1 demethylation inhibited migration, invasion, and proliferation of PCa cells, and induced cell cycle to be arrested at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, it was shown by tumor xenograft assay that MTSS1 inhibited the growth of tumor in vivo. Hypermethylated MTSS1 promoted PCa cells migration, invasion, and proliferation, and suppressed cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase.

Journal of cellular physiology. 2019 Sep 20 [Epub ahead of print]

Junjie Chen, Liang Huang, Quan Zhu, Zhao Wang, Zhengyan Tang

Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China., Department of Urology, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, China.