Surgical management of penile cancer depends on accurate margin assessment and staging. Advanced optical imaging technologies may improve penile biopsy and organ-sparing treatment. We evaluated the feasibility of confocal laser endomicroscopy for intraoperative assessment of benign and malignant penile tissue.
With institutional review board approval, 11 patients were recruited, 9 with suspected penile cancer, and 2 healthy controls. Confocal laser endomicroscopy using a 2.6-mm fiber-optic probe was performed at 1 or 2 procedures on all subjects, for 13 imaging procedures. Fluorescein was administered intravenously approximately 3 minutes prior to imaging for contrast. Video sequences from in vivo (n = 12) and ex vivo (n = 6) imaging were obtained of normal glans, suspicious lesions, and surgical margins. Images were processed, annotated, characterized, and correlated with standard hematoxylin and eosin histopathology.
No adverse events related to imaging were reported. Distinguishing features of benign and malignant penile tissue could be identified by confocal laser endomicroscopy. Normal skin had cells of uniform size and shape, with distinct cytoplasmic membranes consistent with squamous epithelium. Malignant lesions were characterized by disorganized, crowded cells of various size and shape, lack of distinct cytoplasmic membranes, and hazy, moth-eaten appearance. The transition from normal to abnormal squamous epithelium could be identified.
We report the initial feasibility of intraoperative confocal laser endomicroscopy for penile cancer optical biopsy. Pending further evaluation, confocal laser endomicroscopy could serve as an adjunct or replacement to conventional frozen section pathology for management of penile cancer.
Urologic oncology. 2019 Sep 16 [Epub ahead of print]
Eugene Shkolyar, Mark A Laurie, Kathleen E Mach, Dharati R Trivedi, Dimitar V Zlatev, Timothy C Chang, Thomas J Metzner, John T Leppert, Chia-Sui Kao, Joseph C Liao
Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA., Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA., Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA. Electronic address: .