Active surveillance instead of active treatment (at) is preferred for patients with low-risk prostate cancer (lr-pca), but practice varies widely. We conducted a population-based study to assess the proportion of patients who underwent at between January 2011 and December 2014, and to evaluate factors associated with at.

The provincial cancer registry was linked to administrative health datasets to identify patients with lr-pca and to acquire demographic, tumour, and treatment data. The primary outcome was receipt of at during the first 12 months after diagnosis, defined as any receipt of external-beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, radical prostatectomy, cryotherapy, or androgen deprivation. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the correlation between patient and tumour factors and at.

Of 1565 patients with lr-pca, 554 (35.4%) underwent at within 12 months of diagnosis. Radical prostatectomy was the most common treatment (58%), followed by brachytherapy (29.6%). Younger age [odds ratio (or) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (ci): 0.91 to 0.94], lower score (≥3) on the Charlson comorbidity index (OR: 0.36; 95% ci: 0.19 to 0.68), T2 stage (or: 3.05; 95% ci: 2.03 to 4.58), higher prostate-specific antigen (psa) at diagnosis (or: 1.13; 95% ci: 1.06 to 1.21), radiation oncologist consultation (or: 3.35; 95% ci: 2.55 to 4.39), and earlier diagnosis year (2012 or: 0.46; 95% ci: 0.34 to 0.63; 2013 or: 0.45; 95% ci: 0.32 to 0.63; 2014 or: 0.33; 95% ci: 0.23 to 0.47) were associated with a higher probability of at.

This contemporary population-based study demonstrates that approximately one third of patients with lr-pca undergo at. Patients of younger age, with less comorbidity, a higher tumour stage, higher psa, earlier year of diagnosis, and radiation oncologist consultation were more likely to undergo at. Further investigation is needed to identify strategies that could minimize overtreatment.

Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.). 2019 Aug 01 [Epub]

S Roy, M E Hyndman, B Danielson, A Fairey, R Lee-Ying, W Y Cheung, A R Afzal, Y Xu, T Abedin, H C Quon

Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB., Southern Alberta Institute of Urology, Calgary, AB., Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB., Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB., Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB.