Renal cell carcinoma stands out as one of the most immune-infiltrated tumors in pan-cancer comparisons. Features of the tumor microenvironment heavily affect disease biology and may affect responses to systemic therapy. With evolving frontline options in the metastatic setting, several immune checkpoint blockade regimens have emerged as efficacious, and there is growing interest in characterizing features of tumor biology that can reproducibly prognosticate patients and/or predict the likelihood of their deriving therapeutic benefit. Herein, we review pertinent characteristics of the tumor microenvironment with dedicated attention to candidate prognostic and predictive signatures as well as possible targets for future drug development. SIGNIFICANCE: Tumor microenvironment features broadly characterizing angiogenesis and inflammatory signatures have shown striking differences in response to immune checkpoint blockade and antiangiogenic agents. Integration of stromal and immune biomarkers may hence produce predictive and prognostic signatures to guide management with existing regimens as well as future drug development.

Cancer discovery. 2019 Sep 16 [Epub]

Lynda Vuong, Ritesh R Kotecha, Martin H Voss, A Ari Hakimi

Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York., Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York., Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. .

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