Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a relatively rare malignancy of the urinary tract system. RCC is a heterogenous disease in terms of underlying histology and its associated underlying pathobiology, prognosis and treatment schedule. The most prevalent histological RCC subtype is clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), accounting for about 70-80% of all RCCs. Though the pathobiology and treatment schedule for ccRCC are well-established, non-ccRCC subtypes account for 20%-30% of RCC altogether, and their underlying molecular biology and treatment options are poorly defined. The class of non-coding RNAs-molecules that are generally not translated into proteins-are new cancer drivers and suppressors in all types of cancer. Of these, small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to carcinogenesis by regulating posttranscriptional gene silencing. Additionally, a growing body of evidence supports the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cancer development and progression. Most studies on non-coding RNAs in RCC focus on clear-cell histology, and there is a relatively limited number of studies on non-ccRCC subtypes. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the current knowledge regarding the role of non-coding RNAs (including short and long non-coding RNAs) in non-ccRCC and to highlight possible implications as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers.

Cancers. 2019 Oct 17*** epublish ***

Dominik A Barth, Ondrej Slaby, Christiane Klec, Jaroslav Juracek, Rares Drula, George A Calin, Martin Pichler

Research Unit of Non-Coding RNAs and Genome Editing, Division of Clinical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria. ., Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic. ., Research Unit of Non-Coding RNAs and Genome Editing, Division of Clinical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria. ., Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic. ., Research Centre for Functional Genomics and Translational Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 40015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania. ., Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ., Research Unit of Non-Coding RNAs and Genome Editing, Division of Clinical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria. .

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