To examine the effect of permanent salvage brachytherapy in prostate cancer patients suffering recurrence after three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy.

The ultra-focal (target lesion alone), hemi-lobe (within a hemi-lobe) or focused whole-gland (focusing on the lesion, but extending into the whole gland) pattern was selected based on the Gleason score for the targeted biopsy, the numbers of positive cores in the targeted and systematic biopsies, and the locations of the positive cores.