(UroToday.com) The European Association of Urology (EAU) Section of Oncological Urology (ESOU) 2021 Virtual meeting included a presentation by Dr. Evanguelos Xylinas discussing the status of biomarkers in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer in 2021. Dr. Xylinas notes that there are currently two unmet needs, both an economic burden and patient burden. A study from 2016 found that bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Specifically, bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens.1 Furthermore, the cost of surveillance for low-risk NMIBC has been estimated at >$52,000, >$146,000 for intermediate-risk, and >$366,000 for high-risk disease.