Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is extremely rare in pregnant women. However, this is one of the most reported urologic tumors during pregnancy. The aim of this review was to evaluate RCC during pregnancy in terms of epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, natural history of disease, and the safety of laparoscopic approach in the management of this tumor. RCC presentation is frequently made incidentally during an ultrasonography performed for other reasons, such as hydronephrosis owing to non-neoplastic causes. The optimal time for surgery during pregnancy and the consequences of surgery on the maternal and fetal well-being are major considerations. Risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes should be explained, and the patient’s decision about pregnancy termination should be considered. Ultrasound is good in diagnosing renal masses, with a sensitivity comparable to that of computed tomography only for exophytic masses larger than 3 cm. Magnetic resonance imaging is reproducible and a good, though expensive, alternative to computed tomography scans for the evaluation of renal lesions in pregnant women. Radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing surgery are essential treatments for management of RCC. Laparoscopic surgery has historically been considered dangerous during pregnancy and avoided whenever possible, because of concerns regarding surgery-related risks, such as uterine injury, miscarriage, teratogenesis, preterm birth, and hypercapnia. The laparoscopic treatment during pregnancy is becoming increasingly accepted where feasible with low morbidity. However, the combination of a multidisciplinary approach, multi-specialty communication, and skilled surgeons can give the best possible outcomes for mother and fetus.
Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2019 May 27 [Epub ahead of print]
Lucio Dell’Atti, Chiara Borghi, Andrea Benedetto Galosi
Department of Urology, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti” and Polythecnic University of Marche Region, Ancona, Italy. Electronic address: ., Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara and S. Anna Hospital of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy., Department of Urology, University Hospital “Ospedali Riuniti” and Polythecnic University of Marche Region, Ancona, Italy.