To examine the California Cancer Registry (CCR) for bladder cancer survival disparities based on race, socioeconomic status (SES), and insurance in California patients.
The CCR was queried for bladder cancer cases in California from 1988 to 2012. The primary outcome was disease-specific survival (DSS), defined as the time interval from date of diagnosis to date of death from bladder cancer. Survival analyses were performed to determine the prognostic significance of racial and socioeconomic factors.
A total of 72,452 cases were included (74.5% men, 25.5% women). The median age was 72 years (range, 18-109 years). The racial distribution among the patients was 81% white, 3.8% black, 8.8% Hispanic, 5.2% Asian, and 1.2% from other races. In black patients, tumors presented more frequently with advanced stage and high grade. Medicaid patients tended to be younger and had more advanced-stage, higher-grade tumors compared to patients with Medicare or managed care (P < .0001). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significantly poorer 5-year DSS in black, low SES, and Medicaid patients (P < .0001). When controlling for stage, grade, age, and gender, multivariate analysis revealed that black race (DSS hazard ratio = 1.295; 95% confidence interval, 1.212-1.384), low SES (DSS hazard ratio = 1.325; 95% confidence interval, 1.259-1.395), and Medicaid insurance (DSS hazard ratio = 1.349; 95% confidence interval, 1.246-1.460) were independent prognostic factors (P < .0001).
An analysis of the CCR demonstrated that black race, low SES, and Medicaid insurance portend poorer DSS. These findings reflect a multifaceted socioeconomic and public health conundrum, and efforts to reduce inequalities should be pursued.
Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2019 May 31 [Epub ahead of print]
John M Sung, Jeremy W Martin, Francis A Jefferson, Daniel A Sidhom, Keyhan Piranviseh, Melissa Huang, Nobel Nguyen, Jenny Chang, Argyrios Ziogas, Hoda Anton-Culver, Ramy F Youssef
Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, CA. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, CA., Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Irvine, CA.