According to the 2016 American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), clinicians should offer a 2nd intravesical induction course of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to patients with persistent or recurrent Ta or CIS disease after a 1st BCG induction course. However, evidence for a 2nd course is limited, and some patients forego a 2nd induction of BCG in favor of a clinical trial or alternate intravesical therapy. We sought to investigate contemporary oncologic outcomes of a 2nd induction course of BCG in a multi-institutional cohort.
Three hundred fifty-three patients who received full induction BCG for NMIBC since 2001 at 2 institutions were identified. Patients were categorized as receiving primary 6-week induction therapy or subsequent 2nd 6-week induction therapy for patients who recurred or persisted. The baseline differences in demographic and tumor characteristics were compared between the 2 groups, and Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to assess high-grade recurrence free survival (HgRFS) among both groups. Univariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with recurrence after 2nd course BCG RESULTS: A total of 353 patients received 1st induction BCG (BCG1) and 116 patients received a 2nd induction course (BCG2). Maintenance therapy was given to 117 (33.1%) patients after BCG1 and 43 (37.1%) patients after BCG2. Both cohorts were similar in demographics including age, sex, and race. Pathologic stage before treatment differed as BCG1 patients were more likely to have T1 (40.8% vs. 25%) and less likely to have CIS (13.9% vs. 33.6%) (P < 0.001). Complete response (CR) 3 months after BCG1 was observed in 276 patients (78.2%) and 104 patients (89.7%) after BCG2. Responses remained durable, with 36-month CR of 54.7% in BCG1 and 65.6% in BCG2. Progression to MIBC was identified in 1.4% of BCG1 patients vs. 3.4% in BCG2 patients (P = 0.17). Pathologic stage before BCG2 does not predict progression to MIBC (P = 0.21) after BCG2. The time interval between the 1st and 2nd induction of BCG was not significantly associated with response to 2nd induction BCG (P = 0.47). Maintenance therapy after BCG2 was associated with decreased recurrence after 2nd induction course of BCG.
A 2nd course of BCG is efficacious with a durable HgRFS, validating the recommendations of the 2016 AUA guidelines.
Urologic oncology. 2019 Jun 26 [Epub ahead of print]
Marcus J Daniels, Emily Barry, Mark Schoenberg, Donald L Lamm, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Alex Sankin, Max Kates
James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY., BCG Oncology, Phoenix, AZ., James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD.