We compare prostate biopsy (Pbx) characteristics from 3 years prior to the 2012 United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) prostate cancer (PCa) screening guidelines with those of 2018, with a focus on African American (AA) men and healthy men aged 70 to 80 years. We completed a retrospective comparative analysis of 1703 sequential patients that had had a Pbx from 2010 to 2012 (3 years) with 383 patients biopsied in 2018. Data was collected on patient age, race, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination (DRE), total number of biopsies performed, and Gleason sum score (GSS). The data was analyzed to determine whether the 2012 USPSTF screening recommendations affected PCa characteristics. Two study groups were defined as group A and B, Pbx prior to the 2012 USPSTF screening guidelines and that of 2018, respectively. The study population consisted of 71% high-risk AA patients. In Group A (pre-2012 USPSTF guidelines), 567 patients/year underwent a Pbx versus Group B, 383 patients/year, a 32% reduction post-USPSTF. The annual positive Pbx rate for Group A is 134/year versus Group B with 175/year, a 31% increase post-USPSTF. In Group B, there was a 94% relative increase in total positive biopsies. Group A had high-grade PCa (GSS 7-10) in 51.5% versus 60.5% in Group B, a 9% increase post-USPSTF. The proportion of patients with a PSA 10 ng/mL or higher was 25.4% in group A versus 29.3% in group B. The age group of 70 to 80 years demonstrated an increasing trend for patients with PSA 10 ng/mL and higher, 31% in Group A versus 38% in Group B; high-grade tumors (GSS 7-10) occurred in 61% in Group A versus 65% in Group B. After the 2012 USPSTF guidelines against PCa screening, our study shows decreased prostate cancer screening with decreased Pbx, increased PCa diagnosis, and increased high-grade (GSS 7-10) PCa. These trends were especially notable in the 70- to 80-year age group, which showed a larger proportion of total patients (compared with pre-2012 USPSTF guidelines), increased PCa grades, increased PSA levels, and a higher percentage of patients with greater than 50% positive cores. As our patient population consists of 71% AA patients, our results support aggressive PCa screening for high-risk patients, which includes AA men, men with a family history of PCa, and healthy men aged 70 to 80 years.

Reviews in urology. 2019 Jan [Epub]

Navin Shah, Vladimir Ioffe, Shannon Cherone

Mid-Atlantic Urology Associates Greenbelt, MD., 21st Century Oncology Greenbelt, MD., Integrated Cellular and Molecular Diagnostics Greenbelt, MD.