The aim of the present study was to identify and test a urine marker panel of genes involved in DNA methylation and histone modification for the detection of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). RNA samples obtained from the voided urine of 227 patients with asymptomatic microscopic haematuria (AMH) were analysed. Gene array analysis was performed on 18 randomly selected cDNA samples, which revealed that histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9), HDAC3, tRNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase1 and DNA methyltransferase 1 were differentially expressed between patients with UCB and control subjects. Subsequently, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was employed to test the performance of the identified four-gene panel on the remaining 209 cDNA samples. In this targeted discovery cohort, all four genes were significantly associated with UCB on univariable analyses [each odds ratio (OR) >2, P<0.05], but only HDAC3 was significant following multivariable analysis (OR=2.8, P=0.011). The addition of HDAC3 to a base risk factor model improved its accuracy by 1.4%. These data suggest that urinary HDAC3 is associated with the presence of UCB in patients with AMH; however, HDAC3 improved the accuracy of the established risk factors only to a marginal extent.

Oncology letters. 2019 May 07 [Epub]

Ilaria Lucca, Sebastian L Hofbauer, Andrea Haitel, Martin Susani, Shahrokh F Shariat, Tobias Klatte, Michela De Martino

Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria., Department of Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.