Urolithiasis has always been a fascinating disease, even more so in children. There are many intriguing facets to this pathology. This article is a nonsystematic review to provide an update on the surgical management of pediatric urolithiasis. It highlights the pros and cons of various minimally invasive surgical options such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), laparoscopy, and robotics. This article also describes the various intracorporeal disintegration technologies available to fragment the stone, including the newer advancements in laser technology. It also emphasizes the cost considerations especially with reference to the emerging economies. Thus, this manuscript guides how to select the least-invasive option for an individual patient, considering age and gender; stone size, location, and composition; and facilities and expertise available.

Frontiers in pediatrics. 2019 Jul 03*** epublish ***

Sajid Sultan, Sadaf Aba Umer, Bashir Ahmed, Syed Ali Anwar Naqvi, Syed Adibul Hasan Rizvi

Philip G. Ransley Department of Paediatric Urology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan.