Testicular cancer (TC) represents one of the most peculiar clinical challenges at present. In fact, currently treatments are so effective ensuring a 5 years disease-free survival rate in nearly 95% of patients. On the other hand however, TC represents the most frequent newly diagnosed form of cancer in men between the ages of 14 and 44 years, with an incidence ranging from <1 to 9.9 affected individuals per 100,000 males across countries, while the overall incidence is also increasing worldwide. Furthermore, cancer survivors show a 2% risk of developing cancer in the contralateral testis within 15 years of initial diagnosis. This complex and multifaceted scenario requires a great deal of effort to understand the clinical base of available evidence. It is now clear that genetic, environmental and hormonal risk factors concur and mutually influence both the development of the disease and its prognosis, in terms of response to treatment and the risk of recurrence. In this paper, the most recent issues describing the relative contribution of the aforementioned risk factors in TC development are discussed. In addition, particular attention is paid to the exposure to environmental chemical substances and thermal stress, whose role in cancer development and progression has recently been investigated at the molecular level.

Frontiers in endocrinology. 2019 Jul 02*** epublish ***

Luca De Toni, Iva Šabovic, Ilaria Cosci, Marco Ghezzi, Carlo Foresta, Andrea Garolla

Unit of Andrology and Reproductive Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.