Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has traditionally been regarded as radioresistant tumor based on preclinical data and negative clinical trials using conventional fractionated radiotherapy. However, there is emerging evidence that radiotherapy delivered in few fractions with high single-fraction and total doses may overcome RCC s radioresistance. Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) has been successfully used in the treatment of intra- and extracranial RCC metastases showing high local control rates accompanied by low toxicity. Although surgery is standard of care for non-metastasized RCC, a significant number of patients is medically inoperable or refuse surgery. Alternative local approaches such as radiofrequency ablation or cryoablation are invasive and often restricted to small RCC, so that there is a need for alternative local therapies such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Recently, both retrospective and prospective trials demonstrated that SBRT is an attractive treatment alternative for localized RCC. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the published data regarding SBRT for primary RCC. The radiobiological rationale to use higher radiation doses in few fractions is discussed, and technical aspects enabling the safe delivery of SBRT despite intra- and inter-fraction motion and the proximity to organs at risk are outlined.

Clinical and translational radiation oncology. 2019 Apr 26*** epublish ***

Alexander Rühle, Nicolaus Andratschke, Shankar Siva, Matthias Guckenberger

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Zurich, University Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland., Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.