To evaluate the real-world safety and efficacy of cabazitaxel in Japanese patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) previously treated with a docetaxel-containing regimen.

This prospective multicenter observational study registered all patients with mCRPC treated with cabazitaxel following its launch in Japan in September 2014. Patient enrollment continued until at least 500 patients were enrolled. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were evaluated according to CTCAE ver. 4.0. Efficacy endpoints were assessed for up to 1 year, and included prostate specific antigen (PSA) response rates (defined as a decrease of ≥30% or ≥50% from baseline), overall survival (OS), and time to treatment failure (TTF).

A total of 660 mCRPC patients were enrolled across 316 centers by June 2016. Frequent ADRs (any grade) were neutropenia (49.1%), febrile neutropenia (18.0%) and anemia (15.0%). Most ADRs occurred in cycle 1. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were significantly less frequent in patients who received prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. The PSA response rates for decrease of ≥30% or ≥50% from baseline were 28.1% and 17.5%, respectively, in patients with baseline PSA of ≥5 ng/ml. Median OS and TTF were 319 days (95% confidence interval: 293.0-361.0) and 116 days (95% confidence interval: 108.0-135.0), respectively.

This study of cabazitaxel in 660 Japanese patients treated in real-world settings, the largest study of cabazitaxel to date, demonstrated a safety profile that was generally consistent with those of pivotal clinical studies. Cabazitaxel was also effective in terms of the PSA response, OS, and TTF.

Japanese journal of clinical oncology. 2019 Jul 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Kazuhiro Suzuki, Nobuaki Matsubara, Hirotaka Kazama, Takeshi Seto, Shoko Tsukube, Hideyasu Matsuyama

Department of Urology, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan., Department of Breast and Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Japan., Oncology Medical Operations, Sanofi K.K., Tokyo, Japan., Medical Affairs, Sanofi K.K., Tokyo, Japan., Department of Urology, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan.