Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common solid neoplasm of the adult kidney and has a high potential for developing metastatic spread. Approximately 25-30% of RCC patients have metastatic disease at presentation, and 30-40% of patients develop metastases after the initial diagnosis. Advanced renal cancer is a deadly and difficult-to-treat cancer. The 5-year survival rate of patients with metastatic disease is less than 10%, partly because RCC metastases become resistant to current therapies. Pre-clinical models may help to identify the optimum therapeutic options for individual patients. Here we reviewed various mouse xenograft methods for RCC treatment screening especially patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models. Advantages and disadvantaged of some of the models are also discussed.

Translational andrology and urology. 2019 May [Epub]

Avi Patel, Sarah Cohen, Ravan Moret, Grace Maresh, Glenda C Gobe, Li Li

UQ-Ochsner Clinical School, Institute for Translational Research, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA, USA., UQ NHMRC CKD.QLD CRE, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.