OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare in a multireader manner the diagnostic accuracies of 3-T multiparametric MRI interpretation and serial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement in predicting the presence of residual clinically significant prostate cancer after focal laser ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Eighteen men had undergone focal laser ablation for low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer as part of two National Cancer Institute-funded phase 1 clinical trials. Multiparametric MRI was performed immediately after and 6 and 12 months after focal laser ablation. Serial PSA measurements after focal laser ablation were recorded, and MRI-ultrasound fusion biopsy was performed 6 and 12 months after ablation and served as the reference standard. Multiparametric MRI was performed at 3 T with pelvic phased-array coils. T2-weighted, DW, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images were retrospectively assessed by two blinded radiologists using a 3-point Likert scale (0-2). Inter-reader agreement was assessed with the Cohen kappa statistic. The diagnostic accuracies of multiparametric MRI and PSA measurement were compared. RESULTS. Residual clinically significant prostate cancer was identified in 11 of 18 (61%) men. Logistic regression analysis of serial PSA measurements yielded a correct classification rate of 61.1% (p > 0.05). Using a multiparametric MRI threshold score of 4 or greater, both radiologists made correct classifications for 16 of 18 men (89%) at 6 months and 15 of 17 men (88%) at 12 months. Interreader agreement was substantial to excellent for T2-weighted imaging, DWI, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and improved uniformly from 6 to 12 months. Logistic regression analysis of the retrospectively reviewed multiparametric MR images yielded AUCs greater than 0.90 for each radiologist 6 and 12 months after focal laser ablation (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION. Multiparametric MRI 6 and 12 months after focal laser ablation significantly outperformed serial PSA measurements for predicting the presence of residual clinically significant prostate cancer.

AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 2019 Jul 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Ely R Felker, Steven S Raman, David S K Lu, Mitch Tuttle, Daniel J Margolis, Fuad F ElKhoury, James Sayre, Leonard S Marks

1Department of Radiology, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, 757 Westwood Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90095., 2Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY., 3Department of Urology, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA., 4Department of Biostatistics, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA.