Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are global epidemics, driven by an obesogenic environment. This is mediated by complex underlying pathophysiology, in which chronic inflammation is an important aetiological and mechanistic phenomenon. A shift towards a sub-clinical TH 1-lymphocyte mediated innate and chronic inflammatory response is well defined in obesity and MetS, demonstrated in multiple systems including visceral adiposity, brain (hypothalamus), muscles, vasculature, liver, pancreas, testes, epididymis, prostate and seminal fluid. Inflammatory cytokines disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-testes axis and steroidogenesis cascades (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism), spermatogenesis (poor semen parameters, including DNA fragmentation and detrimental epigenetic modification) and results in sub-clinical prostatitis and prostate hyperplasia. This review aims to highlight the role of chronic inflammation in obesity and MetS, cytokines in male reproductive physiology and pathophysiology, the impact on steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, prostate pathology and erectile dysfunction. Currently, it is recommended that clinical assessment of male infertility and reproductive dysfunction in obese and MetS patients includes inflammation assessment (highly-sensitive C-reactive protein), and appropriate advice and therapeutic options are incorporated in the management options. However, the mechanisms and therapeutic options remain poorly understood, and require significant interdisciplinary research to identify potential novel therapeutic strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989). 2019 Aug 02 [Epub ahead of print]
Kristian Leisegang, Ralf Henkel, Ashok Agarwal
School of Natural Medicine, University of the Western Cape, Blanckenberg Rd, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa., Department of Medical Biosciences, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Rd, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa., American Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Urology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.