Management of urothelial bladder cancer has historically been challenging as a result of a limited grasp of disease biology and few available systemic therapy options, mainly consisting of platinum-based chemotherapy. Improved understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer as well as their correlation with tumor behavior and response to treatment has emerged over the past few years. Remarkable therapeutic advances have been made with the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors, which have changed the course of this disease. Multiple agents with novel mechanisms of action are also actively being explored in ongoing clinical trials. These advances are exciting but may prove challenging in terms of how to apply this constantly evolving plethora of data to actual patients. This review addresses the gray areas and challenging questions that frequently arise in clinical practice.

Journal of oncology practice. 2019 Aug [Epub]

Nataliya Mar, Farshid Dayyani

1University of California Irvine, Orange, CA.