The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current development of immuno-oncology in the (neo)adjuvant setting.

Several checkpoint inhibitors (CPis) have been approved for the treatment of advanced solid cancers, mostly for unresectable metastatic setting. Thus, the next logical step is to explore the potential of CPi in earlier stages of the disease.

There are currently many ongoing trials investigating immunotherapy agents in the early setting in various tumor types, involving various CPis and other innovative immunotherapies, as well as combinations with either chemotherapy or radiotherapy. So far, reported results in melanoma, nonsmall-cell lung cancer, and nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer among others are promising. The neoadjuvant setting offers a high potential for translational research and identification of biomarkers with clinical utility.

Current opinion in oncology. 2019 Sep [Epub]

Nuria Kotecki, Ahmad Awada

Service de Médecine oncologique, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.