Advanced renal cell carcinoma has historically carried a poor prognosis with very limited treatment options. However, in recent years, the treatment landscape has changed drastically, with many new therapeutic options and improved survival for patients. Novel treatments consist of molecularly targeted agents against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway as well as the immune checkpoint inhibitors, which stimulate an antitumor immune response. Recent strategy has focused on the development of combination therapy with the use of VEGF inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors in the first-line setting. As more treatments are approved and the options for therapy expand further, there is a growing need for predictive biomarkers to personalize treatment choices for individual patients. Prospective clinical trials comparing the sequencing of treatments are needed to help determine the best therapeutic approach.

Cancer. 2019 Sep 18 [Epub ahead of print]

Charlene M Mantia, David F McDermott

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.