Nivolumab has been introduced for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) as a second-line therapy for years. However, despite widespread evidence of its utility, few reports have described the efficacy of nivolumab for mRCC patients on hemodialysis.

A 68-year-old man with a 20-year history of dialysis due to chronic glomerulotubular nephritis was referred to our department for bilateral renal tumors in 2015. In February 2015, contrast-enhanced CT revealed findings suggestive of RCC, so we performed right nephrectomy. The pathological diagnosis was clear cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. In July 2015, we consequently performed left nephrectomy, and the pathological diagnosis was metastatic RCC. In February 2016, because follow-up CT revealed a right adrenal tumor with time-dependent growth, sunitinib (25 mg/body) was introduced. In January 2017, although sunitinib had controlled the adrenal metastasis for 9 courses (11 months), liver metastasis was observed, so nivolumab was introduced as a second-line chemotherapy in March 2017. Nivolumab was able to control the mRCC for 15 months (32 courses). While CT showed no metastatic sites except for the liver and adrenal glands, his general condition gradually decreased, and he died in October 2018.

We herein report a patient with RCC on hemodialysis with long-term cancer control by nivolumab.

Case reports in oncology. 2019 Aug 06*** epublish ***

Ryota Morinaga, Takashi Kawahara, Yasuhide Miyoshi, Masahiro Yao, Hiroji Uemura

Departments of Urology and Renal Transplantation, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan., Department of Urology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.