This study assesses the clinical safety and efficacy of Gemcitabine and S-1 combination chemotherapy in sorafenib-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients.

The baseline characteristics and survival outcomes of 19 patients suffering from metastatic and progressive sorafenib-refractory RCC were retrospectively collected and analyzed from January 2010 to April 2014. Patients were treated by combining Gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2, day 1 and day 8 of every cycle of 21 days) and S-1 (40 mg/m2, twice a day for 14 days, followed by the rest period of 7 days), with a continual treatment of sorafenib 400 mg twice a day in a cycle of 28 days.

After combination chemotherapy, the disease control rate was 68.4%. Among them, 6 patients (31.6%) had progressive disease (PD), 5 patients (26.3%) had stable disease (SD) and 8 patients (42.1%) had partial response (PR). The median time to progression (TTP) was 6.3 months (range, 2.0-32.7 months), and the median overall survival (OS) was 19.7 months (range, 5.7-45.0 months). In the survival analysis, comparing PD group, disease control (PR + SD) group showed an obviously longer TTP (median TTP: 9.5 vs. 2.0 months, 95% CI, 7.7-11.3 months, P<0.001) and OS (median OS: 21.0 vs. 8.3 months, 95% CI, 14.5-24.9 months, P<0.001). In univariate and multivariate analysis, TTP and OS were significantly associated with disease control condition. Side-effects were found in all patients at different degree, but only 3 patients suffered grade 3/4 toxicities (15.8%). No death related to treatment was observed.

The combination chemotherapy could be a promising treatment option for advanced metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients after sorafenib refractory.

Translational andrology and urology. 2019 Aug [Epub]

Zicheng Xu, Xiao Li, Feng Qi, Xin Hu, Yuxiao Zheng, Hongzhou Cai, Ting Xu, Bin Yu, Qing Zou

Department of Urologic Surgery, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research & Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210009, China., Department of Urology, First Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.