To report the outcomes of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) in men with oligometastatic prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosed on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), based on a single-institution experience and the published literature.

This was a retrospective cohort study of the first 20 consecutive men with oligometastatic PCa, treated with SABR in a single institution, who had biochemical recurrence after previous curative treatment (surgery/radiotherapy), had no evidence of local recurrence, were not on palliative androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and had PSMA-PET/CT-confirmed oligometastatic disease (≤3 lesions). These men were treated with SABR to a dose of 30 Gy in three fractions for bone metastases, and 35-40 Gy in five fractions for nodal metastases. The outcomes of interest were: PSA response; local progression-free survival (LPFS); distant progression-free survival (DPFS); and ADT-free survival (ADTFS). A literature review was performed to identify published studies reporting on outcomes of PSMA-PET/CT-guided SABR.

In our institutional cohort, 12 men (60%) had a decline in PSA post-SABR. One man had local progression 9.6 months post-SABR, with 12-month LPFS of 93%. Ten men had distant progression outside of their SABR treatment field, confirmed on PSMA-PET/CT, with 12-month DPFS of 62%, of whom four were treated with palliative ADT, two received prostate bed radiotherapy for prostate bed progression (confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging), and four received a further course of SABR (of whom one had further progression and was treated with palliative ADT). At last follow-up, six men (one with local progression and five with distant progression) had received palliative ADT. The 12-month ADTFS was 70%. Men with longer intervals between local curative treatment and SABR had better DPFS (P = 0.03) and ADTFS (P = 0.005). Four additional studies reporting on PSMA-PET/CT-guided SABR for oligometastatic PCa were identified and included in the review, giving a total of 346 patients. PSA decline was reported in 60-70% of men post-SABR. The 2-year LPFS, DPFS and ADTFS rates were 76-100%, 27-52%, and 58-62%, respectively.

Our results showed that PSMA-PET/CT could have an important role in identifying men with true oligometastatic PCa who would benefit the most from metastases-directed therapy with SABR.

BJU international. 2019 Sep 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Wee Loon Ong, Tze Lui Koh, Daryl Lim Joon, Michael Chao, Briana Farrugia, Eddie Lau, Vincent Khoo, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Damien Bolton, Farshad Foroudi

Department of Radiation Oncology, Olivia Newton-John Cancer Wellness and Research Centre, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Vic., Australia., Department of Radiology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Vic., Australia., Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic., Australia., Department of Surgery, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Vic., Australia.