In recent years, gene expression profiling has revealed that MIBC can be stratified into different molecular subtypes. While most MIBC studies to date have exclusively used messenger RNA (mRNA) expression to differentiate molecular subtypes, the mammalian transcriptome is comprised of a diverse range of coding (mRNA) and non-coding RNAs, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). In the TCGA study, the lncRNA transcriptome divided the luminal-papillary mRNA subtype into two groups with distinct prognosis, suggesting that lncRNA expression may offer additional resolution for molecular subtypes.