(UroToday.com) In the initial publication of the PURE-01 study, Neoadjuvant Pembrolizumab for Muscle-invasive Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma (PURE-01), neoadjuvant immunotherapy with three cycles of pembrolizumab was associated with a complete response (pT0N0) of 42% and a partial (pT1N0 or less) of 54%.1 While biomarkers associated with pathologic response included higher tumor mutational burden and alterations in DNA damage response, the role of tumor subtyping in this disease space has not been investigated. To investigate tumor subtyping, Dr. Meeks and colleagues performed whole transcriptome RNA-Seq on transurethral resection specimens of 88 patients prior to receiving three cycles of pembrolizumab. For patients with residual cancer, subtyping was performed on 33 tumors after pembrolizumab (at radical cystectomy). At the American Urologic Association (AUA) 2020 virtual meeting, the results of this study were presented.