(UroToday.com) Application of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has seen significant progress in the last few years. Agents targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 have shown activity in locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma in the first- and second-line setting.1,2 However, a significant proportion of patients still perform poorly after receiving these therapies as their disease progresses rapidly.