To investigate the predictive value of tumor infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) on oncological outcomes and response to BCG treatment in patients with Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library on July 2020 to identify relevant studies according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) statement.