To better understand the neuropathophysiology of overactive bladder (OAB) in women by characterizing supraspinal activity in response to bladder distention and cold stimulation.

We recruited 24 female participants, 12 with OAB [median age 40 years (interquartile range 32 – 42)] and 12 healthy controls (HCs) without lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms [34 years (28 – 44)], and assessed LUT and cognitive function through neuro-urological examination, 3-day bladder diary, urodynamic investigation, and questionnaires.