(UroToday.com) Tivozanib is a potent and highly selective VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor in clinical development for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Axitinib is also a potent and selective VEGF-receptor inhibitor now commonly part of front-line advanced RCC treatment. In the TIVO-3 trial, tivozanib demonstrated significantly greater progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.94) and objective response rate (ORR) (15.2% versus 7.5%, p=0.003) versus sorafenib in the intention to treat population, in the subset of patients treated with two prior VEGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), and in patients treated with a prior VEGFR-TKI and an anti-PD-1 antibody.1 The activity of tivozanib after axitinib has not been previously defined, and as such the activity of tivozanib after prior therapy types including axitinib is of clinical relevance. At the 2021 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Genitourinary (GU) Cancers Symposium, Dr. Brian Rini and colleagues presented results of the TIVO-3 trial testing tivozanib in patients with advanced RCC who had progressed after prior axitinib treatment.