(UroToday.com) The final session of the 7th Annual AIBCCR Symposium, chaired by Dr. Molly Ingersoll (Institut Pasteur), explored ways of going beyond BCG to exploit immunomodulation for bladder cancer. Dr. Ingersoll set the scene for the session by highlighting the urgent need for alternative treatment approaches to BCG, referencing a recent publication that demonstrated increased recurrence and cost of care in patients with intermediate- and high-risk NMIBC as a result of the global BCG shortage.1